American Relief Administration ‘ARA’ Report


This report exposes the failure of the Soviet/Communism system. In 1921 and 1922 the area of than referred to as, South Russia had a famine. The lack of rain in the region was a minor part of the problem. This had also happened in the past and the native population had learned to deal with it.

The major part of the famine was cause by the incompetence of the Soviet/Bolshevik party. Lenin had introduced his five year plan, the New Economic Policy (NEP), which was a disaster. One segment of the plan was called “Surplus Collection”. In reality, Surplus collection was the confiscation of personal property. In the process of collecting grain, the government did not allow farmers to keep a sufficient amount of grain for seeding the following year and for personal consumption. This collection action by the government compounded the problem.
Being aware of the famine problem in Russia, some countries responded with aid. The United States under H. Hoover responded with the American Relief Administration (ARA) program.

The file exposes the fact, that rather than being appreciative of receiving aid and assisting in the distribution of the food, Russia had other priorities. In connection with the U. S. ARA program, the primary goal of the Russians was to insert spies in the program to determine who was providing the aid, who was assisting in the distribution and who was accepting the aid.                                                                    
Retrived from the Ukrainain State Security Archive(USBU) 

Translated by Serge Ant

State Security Service of Ukraine
State Branch Archives

Collection 13 of published editions
File 426

The KGB (State Security Committee) at the UkrSSR Council of Ministers


The "ARA" (American Relief Administration) Materials
1922 (in 2 volumes)

Volume 1

Pages 81-82

To: GPU (State Political Administration) of Ukraine
Foreign Department


Foreign organizations on rendering aid to starving people of Zaporozhye province started their activity by the end of February of 1922. Before that just individual representatives of ARA (American Relief Administration) and AMP (American Mennonite Aid) had been visiting this province to travel over areas stricken by famine and clarify its extent as well as a scale of help needed. A systematic activity started at the end of February on organization of dining-rooms in the village of Chortitz and some other volosts mainly populated by German colonists. Some peculiarities of this work immediately came to light to be noticed by the GPU provincial department. So e.g. it was seen from informants' reports that the aid was in the first instance rendered to kulak population, and technical assistants were recruited from this very group. Along with bringing relief, the ARA carried out agitation activity instigating people to leave to America. These circumstances about which the GPU of Ukraine was informed in details, impelled the provincial department to take measures as for organizing an attached group on foreign affairs, so forming this group was begun at the beginning of March. It should be noted that the organization work proceeded in a way not drastic enough since the provincial department was to act at its own risk because no instructions had been gotten from the centre as to organizing the group. The group was entrusted with a task of observation over foreign relief organizations acting within the province and its forming spread in the way as follows -- ... assigned to be the group commissioner ... limited staff of the provincial department ... the group originally concentrated its work exclusively upon observation over the AMP as the only organization actively working in the province ... clearing up its leaders' political physiognomies, information about technical personnel, contacts, etc. ... secret service working up was hampered because the department was not able to make direct contacts with foreign organization legally, all activities in this regard had to be carried out only through the province executive committee and the committee for helping starving people which provided the provincial department with just insufficient information ... When the department nevertheless decided to take measures for entering secret agents into the organization, it didn't succeed since the AMP took to work at the organization exclusively kulaks from the midst of German colonists mostly having voluminous counter-revolutionary past ... 

The AMP representatives reside in Zaporozhye by themselves in one building, visiting nowhere except for individual travelings in a car on business, access to them is extremely difficult even by official functions ... Measures for bringing to light foreign organizations' activity are -- detailed instructions to give to all commissioners of the department in uyezds regarding organization of local groups ... no appreciable results have been gotten...

Beginning in April the range of the group activity expanded since the ARA organization started to deploy its machinery in the province. Outward observation was set over its activity and moreover, information about that was gotten from general net of informants ... no success on entering secret agents yet ... 

... So far, no reprehensible things have been noted. On April 29 the department received instructions regarding the group on foreign affairs to be formed ... All needed measures have been taken by now as for assignment of a special commissioner on foreign organizations' activity attached to the committee for helping starving people, to be entrusted with carrying out of the group's work in a planned and systematic manner, with getting it legalized so to say ... The nearest tasks to be taken are --            1) detailed clearing up activities of the ARA, AMP, Czech mission and Nansen's organization with regular reports to be send ...                                               2) registering all employees of these organizations, both Russian and foreign with detailed description of them;    3) providing a special group of officials for outward observation over these organizations and                  4) entering secret agents into them and recruiting informants from the midst of their employees (the latter has been partially realized). 

Acting head of the GPU provincial department /signature/

Acting head of the special division /signature/

Page 127

from report No 772 dated September 26, 1922.

Relief organizations working in UkrSSR in the name of Nansen:

1. International Red Cross. Children's salvation society. Representative -- G. Dessona (7 Teatralnaya Street). 
2. World Jewish conference. ORT society. Representative  --            D. Adler (12 Sadovaya Street, Odessa). 
3. Epidemiological commission. The League of Nations. Representative -- Panteleoni (15 Maximilian Street, Kharkov). 
4. Czecho-Slovak mission. Representative -- Benel (Kharkov). 
5. Seven-day adventists. Representative -- Sviridov (apt. 5, 6 Preobrazhenskaya Street, Odessa). 
6. Baptists. Representative -- P. Ivanov (Melitopol).
7. Jewish Mildman's mission. Representative -- Smoler (15 Petrovskaya Street, Ekaterinoslav).
8. Jewish colonization society. Representative -- Lubarsky (apt. 2, 5 Okripnitskaya Street, Kharkov).

Assistant commissioner /signature/

Page 128

from secret agent's report No 772 dated September 11, 1922.

... Skvortsov reports that the Nansen's mission stopped feeding on September 8 because of absence of foods while the ARA reduced that considerably. Mutual relations of comrade Skvortsov and the ARA are satisfatory ... the ARA plenipotentiary Berringer takes all Skvortsov's reasons into consideration ... The ARA committees in general got sheer assistance of local authorities in Ekaterinoslav province ... To avoid a possibility for the ARA to collect information of economical nature, proper measures have been taken at the ARA uyezd committees. The ARA's drawing apparatus has properly been used as well making at non-working time all diagrams, cartograms, etc, for comrade Skvortsov to be delivered to the ARA by his consent then. 

Assistant commissioner /signature/

Pages 129-130

To: GPU (State Political Administration) of Ukraine
Foreign Department

About activity of foreign organizations on rendering aid to starving people during the period of September 1 to October 1, 1922

... The ARA has been 50% reduced the catering comparing to that in June, July and first days of August. For the time being the ARA feeds children exclusively, as for adults only sick people who are under treatment at medical institutions are fed. As by 1 October 5,822 children are registered for allowances at the ARA dining-rooms and there are 1,190 adults under treatment at clinics. 

Some features of the ARA's activity in the course of first half of the period under review and during Mr. Konin's stay as a representative general of the ARA in Zaporozhye province are to be noted, e.g. individual rations as before issued to bourgeois elements like former land- and factory-owners, physicians, etc. 

A tendency was exhibited to give employment to Russians exclusively from the midst of bourgeois elements. The ARA not once tried to, beside the plenipotentiary at foreign aid organizations in Zaporozhye province, get direct contacts with soviet establishments. Several cases of such contacts were noted with the post-telegraph office and proper measures have been taken to eliminate this. Up until now, the ARA tried to not admit the commissioner of Starving People's Committee at Foreign Organizations to a partial control over its activity in spite of this right given to him according to the agreement concluded with the ARA, with threats as for shutting dining-rooms down and discontinuing nurishment sent immediately at slightest demand regarding this control. 

One typical case in the ARA's activity is also to be noted... at the beginning of September the ARA representative on medical supply Mr. Kefi came to the commissioner of Starving People's Committee at Foreign Organizations with the demand for giving him a mandate allowing to inspect orphanages and medical institutions with the aim to get necessary statistical data. Having been refused Mr. Kefi immediately ordered to shut down medical storehouses and discontinue issue of medical supplies and that was done. The physicians attending to the ARA mission then applied to the head of executive committee of the province ... that resulted in giving the mandate requested to Mr. Kefi and opening up the storehouses. Later, apparently after medical institutions and orphanages having been examined, Mr. Kefi informed the commissioner by his letter that medical supplies will be only given to those of which are in a proper cleanness and order with the rest denied ... Such incidents are no longer repeated after the coming of a new representative of the ARA. As to partial control over the ARA activity, a right for that now is to some extent conceded to the commisioner. 

As for the AMP's activity it was evinced in the land cultivation by tractors. Number of those fed in September is also reduced. For the time being 5,610 children and 4,352 adults are getting nourishment at the AMP's dining-rooms ... same tendency to exclusively feed coreligionists ... Russian employees are solely from German large-scale bourgeois pretending to giving their former property back to them with the AMP's help ...

Nothing special compromising activity of the AMP was noted. However, in the village of Bogdanovka of Tokmak uyezd one distinctive and mysterious case happened when a villager by the name of Gaida told his fellow villagers that he knows people serving at the AMP who draw up lists of all soviet office workers and send these lists abroad. The next day a meal was brought to Gaida from the AMP's cook-house although he had  never received that before, after taking the meal Gaida died immediately ...

Because of the lack of foods at its disposal the Nansen's mission also cut the number of those fed in September. By 1 October 12,499 children and 9,859 adults ... this includes eaters fed by the Czecho-Slovak and Baptist missions as well which work through the mission of Nansen. 

German Red Cross has not yet developed its work which is to be started by September 15. The Holland mission representative has arrived to the province to take a responsibility as for organizing orphanages for 10,000 children, no information about its further activity is yet available.... 

... in spite of all measures taken regarding foreign organizations such as recruiting informants amidst their own employees and bringing our secret agents into there, no needed results were obtained because of ... selective way of employment mentioned above ... one is only to get information just through general net of informants. 

Head of the GPU Provincial Department /signature/

Page 132

from secret agent's report No 772 dated October 13, 1922.

Zaporozhye commissioner Kott informs that in Novo-Alexandrovsk of Grigorievka volost, Zaporozhye uyezd there is a Lutheran Committee assigned by pastor Ratt. This committee solely consists of Lutheran coreligionists and former representative of the ARA Mr. Lauchs and is called as the ARA Committee. Pastor Ratt is a representative of Lutheran Council in America. Getting parcels from the Council for indigent Lutherans of South Ukraine the ARA distributes them through Ratt. The ARA representative Hartridge applied with the request to approve this committee but the plenipotentiary representation has proposed to liquidate it and stop all distribution of parcels.

Assistant commissioner /signature/

Page 144

To: All heads of investigation-operative divisions of the GPU provincial departments

It is ordered to, at the earliest possible date, to form a general file on former employees of the ARA to put reports in of both secret and informational kind as well as results of external observation, etc.

Additionally, start personal dossiers on those former employees for whom data is available, to put in each of them registration forms and personally pertaining materials.

Intensify informational activity of agents.

Inform about obtained results in monthly reports. 

Head of the GPU counter-intelligence division /Ivanov/
Commissioner /Varshavsky/

Page 162

/Cover page/
Personal file No 7
on the ARA employee Nikisheva

Started -- September 20, 1922
Complete --
On ____ sheets

Pages 193-196

/Text in English/

Page 206

about activity of the ARA in the town of Kharkov

1. By January 10, 1922 ... the ARA has started to manifest itself more vigorously in terms of real help for starving people, only a slogan existed before with no relief brought ... the ARA's dreams as for organizing dining rooms have not yet come true.

For the time being, one has to note that real help of the ARA is beginning to evince itself, 5 wagons with food recently arrived to Kharkov, one of them was loaded with a car for the ARA administration though ... The things brought this way are being detrained and transported to the storehouses that are at 11 Maximilianovskaya Street. This detraining is going on very vigorously but at the same time the storehouses are being unloaded with same energy!... A doubt is creeping in whether those starving actually get relief ... There is an official information to state that the ARA has already started the foods distribution. Some individuals with "red physiognomies" have gotten about 12 poods per person of following food -- flour, rice, sugar, tea, lard, condensed milk, etc. There is a great deal of talk about relief needed to actually starving people and one is to pass it over in silence so far as for whether dining-rooms will or will not be inaugurated for them. 

According to information received from the commissioner at the ARA, another consignment of food goods for the ARA is to arrive from Kiev any day, but how much and what exactly is not yet determined. 

2. It's not yet possible to say something about political activity of the ARA since they are very cautious although having contacts with suspects towards the soviets, e.g. with Romanian journalist Kazani as well as some individuals from Polish Embassy and Czecho-Slovak mission. 

January 20, 1922
Commissioner of the VUCK Special Division Foreign Department /signature/

Pages 208-208back

about activity of the ARA

Since the very beginning and until now i.e. January 26, 1922 the ARA's activity in Kharkov in terms of relief to starving people has all the time been at a standstill. Reasons for that are 1) in particular not much energy of the ARA itself and 2) some incomprehensible initiative displayed by our establishments such as the Province Executive Committee (PEC) and Central Living Department as well as all the rest organs within the jurisdiction of them ... Some difference was allegedly was found in the ARA and UkrSSR reciprocal agreements. According to this, the ARA make demands basing upon the agreement it has in hands while the PEC takes its own, distinctly different though, as a principle ... to my personal view, a scene should be made soon. To avoid all these misunderstandings, I gave instructions to the commissioner at the ARA to collate the two agreements with each other and send a report through the PEC ... no data on this matter has been presented yet. Concerning all demands of the ARA such e.g. as regarding equipment of buildings, vehicles, etc. the PEC states to our commissioner that "we are not obliged" to give luxury and all conveniences to the ARA. 

Originally the PEC ignored the ARA representative's word that the ARA should buy furniture for the house at their own costs. For the time being no fuel is needed to heat the house occupied by the ARA is provided and motives of the PEC are clear here, to its view the ARA has to heat the premises occupied by their institutions and storehouses on their own. 

On receiving the ARA representative's information, a partial breach of the agreement concluded between the ARA and the Federation was found (can't recall which exact point). I point out that the RSFSR seal and that of USA put on any load is not to be removed without presence of representative of either the RSFSR or UkrSSR, nevertheless ... the seal was removed by the ARA representative without our representative... a protest was made by our commissioner against a partial breach of the agreement concluded with declining the responsibility for all things missing in the wagons. A pretty nice trick was played by the ARA representative when detraining goods, to be precise he offered to open one box with foods e.g. with tinned evaporated milk and give one tin of that to each of some unloaders ... another protest was made on that ... The ARA is seeking now to make our commissioner nearly the head of its repair technical subdivision to charge him with all provision and equipment responsibilities as well as stock delivery to the ARA ... the PEC representative also took upon himself on his own initiative many responsibilities without any support and instructions that were given. Because of such actions of the PEC representative various issues take place almost every day, based upon misunderstandings, I insist by all means to inform the PEC ... to not violate the agreement points in the future. 

January 26, 1922
Commissioner of the VUCK Special Division Foreign Department /Ivanov-Zimin/

Page 209

of Commissioner of the VUCK Special Division Foreign Department Ivanov-Zimin
/for the period of January 25 -- February 6, 1922/

"About activity of the ARA quartered in Kharkov and Ekaterinoslav"

... The ARA all the time is planning to develop bringing relief to those starving in the region but so far this help comes up to just paper works. ... First, four wagons with food arrived were distributed by the ARA among those overeating rather than starving. ... From the PEC side most passive attention was shown as for allowing premises, etc. necessary for the ARA which has led to most negative results: 1) the ARA had to negotiate with Moscow about the authorities' passivity ... 2) the PEC assistant head Kirkish, requested to wash his hands and stated that the PEC was not an obstacle to development of relief but the PEC representative Minkovsky....

In accordance with this diplomatic approach of the PEC assistant head, the ARA didn't wish to have any negotiations with Minkovsky who, for the time being in the view of aggravated situation was to take a side of secret-service nature at the official commissioner at the ARA. It's not known to me yet who has him substituted. I reported to head of section comrade Ostrovsky about all that. 

Political activity carried out by the ARA is anti-soviet undoubtedly, based upon careful foundation with thin political threads. The ARA representatives often visit Polish Missions and the Embassy, subjects of talks held there have not been established so far and drastic measures are being taken to determine their political physiognomy. One has to significantly note though that according to information found in one foreign magazine, Mathews (the ARA member) served in America as some official at the Department. By his post taken there his political stand towards the Soviet power is quiet clear to us. 

Page 211

From: representative at the ARA
To: 4th section of the VUCK Special Division

... buildings necessary for the ARA's apartments, storehouses and garages are allocated and all that is left to do is equip them, for which drastic measures are being taken. Also, measures for giving relief to starving people in Ukraine will be taken in the nearest future since the goods have started to arrive. Three wagons arrived on January 10 along with an open goods truck with one car. Because of some damage one wagon was left at the station Lytewo. 

Pages 215

To: Head of 4th section of the VUCK Special Division comr. Zimin-Ivanov

... the ARA representatives are looking for a cook who would agree to go outside, but the place to go is not known, whether to America or some town, with taking him on the ARA staff afterwards to work at a dining-room ...

Page 235

/Text in English with English-Russian translation/

Pages 207-208

To: Head of 4th section of the VUCK Special Division comr. Ivanov-Zimin

I inform you that on January 21st 1922, a theft was discovered in the house at 11 Maximilianovskaya Street. The house superintendent Ivanova called me and said: "Look, the door is broken open and 20 bed-sheets and many towels disappeared and other things like portieres, curtains, blinds and carpets were carefully packed up ready to removal". The theft was committed after arrest of superintendents of houses No 11 and 12. It's important that sentries were posted there all the time, day and night so, it's strange that the theft happened. Apparently the preparations were made in contact with the sentries since it took a pretty long time to pack all up and prepare for removal. ... Smirnov's greatcoat and pants were stolen as well ... an application to Province Criminal Investigation Department (PCID) ... a military investigator arrived to interrogate ... two PCID agents arrived with warrants for search and arrest of suspects. Most suspected were the dvornik of house No 11 and house-cleaners one of whom is his wife... investigation, interrogation, search made in the house No 11 and the dvornik's apartment where 11 bed-sheets were found as well as several pairs of linen... The dvornik's wife explained that these things found were given to her by former superintendent of house No 12 Levichenko to keep. All this stuff turned out to be state i.e. of MID (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) this was taken away by PCID officers ... search in the basements found about 1 pood of granulated sugar hidden in old broken furniture at the spot for sawing and hacking firewood. This sugar was also confiscated. The servants assured that a store-place in house No 12 was allegedly plundered several days ago by the superintendents and it was them who stole food everywhere and should be under arrest in CK (Extraordinary Commission) now. ... sentries under suspicion ... the theft might have happened several days earlier after arrest of the superintendents ... the sentry deposed that he took the post over with the door unlocked ... superintendent Ivanova, as a woman was not keen-witted enough to seal the door ... there is also another door leading from the room to a storehouse at the  American mission ... the keys to both front door and that to the room robbed are identical fitting both locks ... the storehouse manager and all the brotherhood are apparently of a bunch of rogues, the manager knowing three words in English is a person respected by Americans who trust him, and he seems to be nothing but their agent overhearing and spying wherever possible and thrusting his nose into improper things ... so he might be the one along with his two assistants who stole as well, with a sentry being not aware at all of what was happening in the room he guarded... Moreover, I lately noted that the manager had been pretty nervous and I understood that either he is sick or something is wrong ... this man is to be taken away from the storehouse and from the Mission, he will bring much harm to our work otherwise ... one day when talking to him he offered some tea and snack to me, I refused under some pretext and he said he has a key that quite fits the lock to the room and he opened the room so one could make it from inside the storehouse without any obstacles. The key can be found on him any moment of searching ... It's possible that to cover tracts and by stealth get into the room, a sentry was sent to a sentry-box for either water or guard commanders that has been noted several times ... As for the sugar found, the PCID investigator said that he's been running this case. The sugar was stolen when there was a dining room for diplomats at house No 11-2 and a cook was under suspicion but nothing was found when searching ... I suppose this can be done by the storehouse manager ... it's clear that the sugar was put into old furniture quite recently since it's still dry ...

Representative at the ARA /signature/
22 January 1922

Page 266

from the report of secret agent No 772

/Excerpt from Ramon Harrington's letter/

... Following a treaty concluded between the US and Ukraine according to which the ARA appealed to American people, we are not obliged to specify those receiving less than five parcels a month. In other words, we have to guarantee the recipients to be able to get their parcels and make use of them without meddling of Soviet power ... We denied the government's resolution as for getting lists of all those enjoying parcels for registering those applying to the government directly. The government proposed to take control of cards gotten at post offices then ... Eventually the compromise has been reached to readily supply the government with information as for if this or that person ever got relief from the ARA during its activity in Russia, whenever the government applies to the ARA for that. There are no reasons for giving statistical information of general nature ... it's proposed to abstain from giving out any personal information about recipients. 

Page 268

from the report of secret agent No. 772 dated July 24, 1922

Today the ARA has refused to give lists and addresses of those having received parcels. Mr. Spratt of the ARA visited Bashkovich and stated that no lists will be issued referring to the injunction from Moscow. Bashkov has sent a telegram to Lander asking to confirm validity of such an injunction and clarify if this misunderstanding contradicts the agreement. In several days you will receive the list I took from the ARA last Monday. In the meanwhile let's wait for a response from Moscow.

Page ???

from the report of secret agent No 772 dated July 1

On July 24 Mr. Puplin took his way to Mariupol, Lakoshtchenkov started to Odessa on Monday, July 3. A courier is bringing official correspondence to Mariupol. 

The ARA is going to picnic on Tuesday, they asked Bashkovich to supply them with a vehicle for making a trip to Pomerky to take a dinner in the evening with something like a dance then. Bashkovich didn't respond and offered to go to the settlement instead and will join them. In case you want to send your agent there he would like to be informed about.

Page 313

from the report of secret agent No. 772 dated September 14.

Mr. Harrington is allegedly going to go abroad to London for a month. Friendship between him, Kaplan and Staroselsky is growing up, with long discussions held in his den, no contents of them known though. These people i.e. Harrington, Kaplan, Staroselsky, Artamonov and Lainem have become pretty good friends with each other and often meet, they then go to the theatre, etc.

Page 37


On STURM (the ARA assistant representative in Nikolayev)

Sturm is a native of Galicia having been living for several years in America. Sturm is concealing knowing Russian language. At the end of June of the current year he wrote several private letters addressed abroad (Barcelona, London, Chicago, Bucurest) and one letter to Berlin to the Committee for giving relief to starving people.

Page 47


On LASSAL (assistant of Dr. Lainem of the ARA, American, big womanizer)

On July 21, 1922 9 p.m. he went out of 41 Maximilian St. and walked along Pushkin St. up to the Province Finance Department, went to the Lopan river then did not stay very long at the Kharkov bridge and to Sumskaya St. where he then took a stroll during two hours and came back home.

Page 79

State Political Administration
25 November 1922
/Record of interrogation of Shelodko, director of shop of locomotive plant/

Depositions -- ... about 2 weeks ago 3 foreigners came and one of them, apparently Russian asked me as for where the plant director's office is. I said that it's on the second floor and they went upstairs. In about an hour they all three went out of the office, took a car and directed themselves towards the town.

Page 97

"Top secret"
To: Head of Foreign Department of UkrSSR GPU Operation Investigation Division comrade Gofitsky 

According to the information we have had, foreign embassies and delegations and especially the ARA are collecting information about our industrial state. Since it is necessary, in the interest of our industry, to give foreign governments information about some fields of it to shed a good light for us, I ask to ascertain sources of this information, keep watch over the obtaining and inform the Dept of Economy about, to jointly enter needed changes in that. Moreover, photocopy all the data to be directed to the Dept of Economy.

Let us know if you can deliver fictitious information issued from the Dept of Economy to foreign missions through your informers. 

14 November 1922
Head of UkrSSR GPU Dept of Economy /signature/
Secretary /signature/

Page 98

To: Foreign Dept
24 November 1922

According to request No 4757 of the GPU local department, the information division asks to elucidate political physiognomy of Kiessling, an official of administration of the UkrSSR plenipotentiary on relations with foreign organizations for giving relief to starving people (2 Sad-Kulikovsky St.), and let the GPU know of that as well as about his contacts with Konstantinopol. 

Information division secretary /signature/

Page 118

Questionnaire No 13
on the ARA official

1. Section of parcels
2. Position -- an official
3. Entered the service -- August 1922

1. Name -- Chkhu-Yu-Kho Pi-Da-Sha
2. Age -- 23
3. Nationality -- Chinese
4. Former status (peasant, noble, bourgeois) --
5. Education -- none
6. Languages known -- Chinese, Russian
7. Main profession -- farmer
8. Party membership -- non-party
9. Trade-union membership --
10. Where served 
-- before 1917 -- worked
-- before 1918 -- in Red Army
-- in 1919 -- in Red Army
-- until very recently -- in Red Army
11. Family status -- married
12. Livelihood before the revolution and now -- wages
13. Who can recommend you --
14. Address -- 4 Rybnaya St.

Kharkov, 2 November 1922

Pages 225-226

Kiev, 25 March 1923

To: Dr. Harley
American Relief Administration
11 Panteleimonovskaya St., Kharkov

Dear Bill,

I have received through Mr. Brick two of your letters dated March 8 and 20, also a telegram from Chemchin, but I think there is some mistake made since I meant "Latvian" Consul while he said "Lithuanian"... The best I can do is to come myself... I want to very much see you  and think we could have a nice time together ... Just send me some money to cover travel expenses, I'll come and we'll be together... we've been waiting so long and will wait a little more, my dear fellow ... Soon after Easter young ladies will want to look at you and you might think "what an old woman is nearby" ... oh how I miss you!... I'll tell you much when meeting since I can't write it here. 

Mr. Harrington visited here for a couple of days and they invited me to be their guest ... then we went to Odessa and yesterday he departed to Ekaterinoslav along with Hendrikson. You know Bill, I have always been friendly with them and even Mr. Warley with whom I work together and who often irritated me... 

With love and best wishes,
Your Elsa

Pages 334-336

about the ARA's activity
5 June 1922

The ARA started its activity in Odessa at the end of January 1922... they started to meddle in not a business of them being interested in sizes of areas under crops, harvests levels, various soviet organizations frameworks, etc. This curiosity was immediately stopped by the Province Executive Committee... 

The ARA Representation in Odessa consists of next sections -- 1) section of parcels which is divided into two subsections exactly that of cards and search ... Parcels are mainly addressed to small shop-keepers and petty bourgeoisies while really starving people in Odessa  almost haven’t seen any relief brought by the ARA. Auxiliary sections of the ARA are 1) section of administration which in addition manages taking personnel on, 2) section of transportation to manage loads transfer by sea and rail-roads and 3) subdivision of statistics to be in charge of economic statistics.

For the time being Americans have collected some funds to feed children and it's being realized following instructions...

The ARA is going to feed 25,000 children in Odessa. The method of nourishment is as follows – first, children have to be examined for nourishment ... not only those 25,000 that are supposed to be fed ... the ARA itself calls this to be just "giving additional food".

All the ARA staff consists of just people of bourgeois descent ... haughty and arrogant ... almost all are German subjects, very prudent and avoiding any political discussions.

There are not many Americans here, just 10...15 people. The ARA representative in Odessa Heines is a very experienced man ... refrains from taking adding communists, only sometimes and on minor posts (mainly at storehouses).


1. John HEINES -- American subject, his physiognomy is not elucidated yet... speaks perfect Russian... has close contacts with one M. Hussison who has an influence on the Government in Kharkov... hopes to make good contacts in Odessa ... there were packages addressed to N. Chabrov... Heines is pretty reserved. 

2. KOBLINZ -- Heines's private secretary/interpreter... suspicious, in charge of taking people into the ARA, sly and cautious, under permanent observation ... American subject, speaks Russian but not perfect...

3. HARRIS -- the ARA secretary, American subject ...

4. ZENIN -- employed at a storehouse of the ARA as a worker... counter-revolutionary tricks ... old actor of Russian drama...

5. MARKOV -- famous shady dealer and blackmailer... worked as an actor before...

6. BACHICH -- head of the office, knows 9 languages...

7. TARTAKOVSKY -- a student, works as a storehouse loader, a friend of Zenin...

8. MULLER -- a storehouse worker, monarchist, was under arrest...

9. POPOV Ivan -- a sentry, cornet, pretty suspicious person...

10. SCHRETER J.N. -- the ARA storehouse manager, German, brother of large-scale homeowner Schreter, former assistant manager of Odessa Evangelical hospital, ....

All needed measures have been taken according to letters No... as for observation to take over the ARA representatives, paying attention to speculative deals, making political physiognomies, etc... No results reached yet though because of inaccessibility and reserve of the ARA official representatives...

One should note by the way that officers of American torpedo-boats coming to Odessa port change their clothes to civilian and make merry with the ARA Americans... prostitutes...

...measures taken on heightening vigilance... we succeeded in recruiting one of division heads to work as our informant... more tight contact with our representative at the ARA comrade Studenikin... no later than in two weeks we'll establish thorough control and observation over every official separately ... stealing and copying documents... real results of our work as a whole will be obtained in the nearest days...

Head of OGPO /signature/
Head of Special Division No 3 /signature/

Pages 403-416back

Copy No 3
"Top secret"
/The review is good, demand similar ones from other province departments/


No 2 /by September 1, 1922/



1. Section of food parcels.
2. Financial section.
3. Administrative section.
4. Section of nourishment (of children and adults).
5. Medical section.
6. Section of port operations.

... Appraising the ARA's activity in bringing relief to starving people and to the province population on the whole, one can say that this help permanently growing has covered about 30% of those starving ... this will help towards all categories of starving and indigent people was temporal and episodic and its share as a matter of real amount of nourishment was insufficient in many cases... The ARA's field of activity on feeding children covers 7 regions -- Maryinskoye/Gross-Liebental, Selz, Maly Buialyk, Adamovka (Odessa uyezd) and Tyraspol, Tsebrikowo/Hoffnungstal, Balta (Tyraspol uyezd). There are 31 stations of nourishment total except for two for students. 

As for feeding adults the ARA's activity was deployed just by the end of July ... Ration per one person was equal to one pound of corn a day (episodic relief). Nourishment stations mentioned catered for children only...

Examination of children's nutritional state prior to taking on the nourishmentis carried out using a new medical method of so called "pelidis" ... Americans stated that according to instructions of the donors, when feeding children they can't follow confessions of social services... ration scale itself is scanty being in grams a day -- cocoa 4, sugar 16, milk 36, flour 100, beans 30, rice 34, oil 8...57, cornmeal 54. 

...accessory nourishment in medical institutions and boarding schools...

...section of food parcels delivering that from relatives or friends residing in America. Subsection of search looks through newspapers and its foreign agents for those whom post cards are directed to from Russian citizens asking for payments needed to make for getting parcels here. Regarding medical help of the ARA, it's been evinced in establishing 8 medical stations the ARA also took part in vaccination campaign at the height of cholera and sanitary measures taken by the state bodies as well.

...number of those lately getting foods from the ARA is 342,298 people. 

Beside the Odessa unit there also is the Central Ukrainian Administration functioning here, it's located in Odessa because of being a centre of distribution of all arriving goods.

Finally, one should note that by the NKID (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) permission there is an organization of DDS acting at the ARA which manages relief to bring exclusively to the intellectuals i.e. professors, physicians, educational specialists, etc. It functions at the expense of Jewish distribution committee. 

THE PERSONNEL. American officials.

The ARA representatives in Odessa are mainly officers, people of aristocratic and bureaucratic quality. They live at a hostel leading an isolated life... they do not allow any interference into their functions... all the correspondence are carried out in English...

Head of Odessa unit Mr. Heines... very reserved, apparently an experienced business man... all his mail was led with taking extreme precautions... One letter of him was intercepted, it was written in prearranged terms and obviously regarded some intelligence work... a number of his letters were addressed to N. A. Brove but we were not able to succeed in unsealing them. 

For the time being Mr. Stuart Ermes is the head of the ARA Odessa unit, his physiognomy and activity are not elucidated yet. His assistant is Mr. Hary Harris who is a very exigent manager...

One of outstanding figures in the ARA is Koblenz who worked there as a Russian secretary and senior interpreter. Many perplexities were connected with him caused, by his alleged being a secret agent... Line of his activity was very much suspicious, he systematically exposed our secret agents we brought into the ARA staff... therefore, Koblenz didn't command any trust... he is a catious and dangerous fellow, was born in Poland... when working with Heines he showed a great devotion to him.

Mr. Klemens who is a senator's son worked as a head of a port transport office... during a visit of American warship No. 237 he called up all its crew and recommended that nobody goes ashore to avoid interpreters since they all are "agitators and swindlers"... 

THE PERSONNEL. Russian officials.

Selection of Russian officials of the ARA is carried out basing upon careful filtration, after recommendations of professors, physicians, etc. bourgeois-intellectual elements... former merchants, artists, etc. were strongly attracted to work at the ARA as well... professors and physicians -- 20%, lawyers -- 15%, former merchants -- 15%, artists and students -- 20%, ladies and gentlemen -- 10% and others -- 20%. The term "gentleman" is explained at the leaflet issued by the ARA as pertaining to those who were more or less independent in the past. One can't say that there is a predominant language of communication used by Russian officials of the ARA ... Professor Babkin Boris was the head of Department of Children's Nourishment before he has been expelled from the Republic. He is an outstanding counter-revolutionary figure, during disturbances of students he... 

Some of officials openly demonstrate their counter-revolutionary attitudes... Welk... being the ARA representative in Maryinskoye/Gross-Liebental district he... stayed with one of his acquaintances, a Fischer who is a kulak ... Welk got into a contact with former participant of counter-revolutionary plot Herle, pastor Rath, wife of runaway rioter Esslinger and other counter-revolutionaries. 

It's curious that another instructor of the ARA, Okhrimenko also spoke out regarding some stupid summer campaigns carried out by the government...

Furthermore, the ARA organ (issued in English as a rule) denies an accusation that the Cherson Committee of general distribution gets funds from plutocracy /"if school children descended from very simple parents, shoeblacks, news-vendors and unskilled labourers are of plutocracy, then the accusation is quite just ..."/. The ARA representatives complaint that they are involved in a policy... 

It's significant to accentuate that there are people in the ARA one-time of certain social state to be so to say the "formers" now /"... "scrape" a shop-worker and you will find a law student ..."/.

There is a review having flashy title "All the Russia Eats". It's said in another one that misters Join and Barten are making a trip over Crimea and compile statistical data about the grape harvest there. 

Reviews "Public Notes" and "Extremes in Russia" are of a special attention to pay though ... "... Dr. Rand came from Moscow last week ... without his luggage ... his interview produced an impression upon us that a well organized gang acts on trains between Odessa and Moscow ...". "Russian extremes" imply gangsterism in general. 


As follows from intercepted letter from New-York to Odessa ... the ARA's activity is qualified as a "diplomatic advertising for American financial aristocracy". Noting that the funds of Hoover's organization won't be enough to save all starving people in Russia he adds: "An advertisement is large-scale, lots of cries to make and bouncing is apparently of full American size. Reconnaissance of attitudes in Russia is the main aim rather than relief is ... Now the starvation campaign is killing two birds with one stone, the reconnaissance has become more reliable and from another hand, one can say that they have helped unhappy Russia, to have an advantage on these grounds to get best concessions then ...". 

And in other letter then: "It's decided to proceed the campaign until January of next year despite expected good crops, it's obviously because of need to on a plausible pretext have spies in Russia ... people are still dying and acts of cannibalism occured in Odessa are described". 

By various data, the ARA's commercial aspect of activity is noted ... It's said at the leaflet issued by the ARA that "parcels are sold with prices exceeding their values. Incomes gotten after that are used for purchase of additional foods for children"...

In Molochna, Taurida province foodstuffs were distributed among ecclesiastical sects for the amount of 600 USD following the letter of AMP. 

Food parcels were also directed to Alexandria, Cherson province, for the amount of 600 USD as well and the donors selected 6 Alexandria residents to entrust with the distribution procedure. 

One resident of Balta asked to send a parcel to him not through the community but directly because the community charges much for notifications making of this typs of business. 


... at the beginning the ARA's activity was becoming more and more popular among various levels of the population and especially petty bourgeoisia whose specimens mainly got parcels from America ... this activity was originally percepted as a pure philanthropy ...

... One can also note another case when employees of veterinary subdivision of Tyraspol Unit of the Zemstvo applied at the ARA asking for giving relief because of not getting their salaries and rations for a long time ... 

We sent an inquiry to the GPU Department in Kiev regarding a possibility of such group solicitations to the ARA with refering to ungetting due maintenance from the state.


... Executive Committee of the World Jewish Relief Organization in Paris has decided to start helping victims of progroms -- refugees accumulated in Podolie exactly in regions of Rybnitsa, Mogilev, Kamenka and others and experiencing critical situation ... 1) supply them with medicines and top priorities; 2) make it possible to emigrate for those having all necessary papers; 3) give relief to other ones wishing to move to other regions of Ukraine for earnings. Romanian government has allowed to make this help through the Dniestr river ...

First consignment consisted of: matzoth gotten after grinding over 620 poods of pure produce, flour and cereals to cook gruel; 40 boxes of evaporated milk; over 1,800 tins of "Nestle"; one box of soap (about 6 poods), and over 500 kilograms of various medicines. This load has been fully distributed among boarding schools of Tyraspol and the uyezd (30 pounds of flour, 1,500 tins of milk and half a pound of soap per one person) ... At the same time 704 individual parcels arrived from which 518 were destined to Odessa but since transport expenditures were estimated to be 2,000,000 Roubles a parcel, about 20 of them remained not redeemed ... Afterwards it was considered to be necessary to direct 40% of foods and 25% of medicines to the river left bank, with 00% and 75% correspondingly to South Ukraine (Odessa). ... no instructions sent to the customs, lack of of information about rights of Nansen organization, absence of funds and means of transportation needed for bringing goods to the places ... 

... Furtermore, on May 17 1,000 tonnes of grain was brought on ship "Chios" with 5,975 poods of wheat, 3,487 poods of barley and 3,487 poods of kidney beans intended for Odessa. On 6 June 1,000 poods of herrings also arrived, with 500 poods of that meant for each Odessa and Nikolayev. 

There are 8 nutrition stations functioning in Odessa and 4 ones outside ...

Heads of Ukrainian Red Cross are Danishevsky ... Lazarevich ... Self supply of some of them (Lazarevich especially) was found to be apparent. 


... Starting to act in Odessa in April of 1921 i.e. from the moment of the first consignment arrived. It covered provinces of Odessa and Nikolayed and until August 1921 -- part of Podolie. Its principles of work are... 

Labour assistance consists of organizing, jointly with soviet organs, artel workshops, farming teams enlisting the services of victims to general utility labour....

Odessa region committee had 14 child welfare institutions in Odessa as its dependants to give an additional ration to 6,678 children and 1,258 people of personnel. Medical institutions under full maintenance -- 1,000 those subsidized -- 5 with 490 people attended plus 68 ones of personnel. Three trade union schools with 349 people are also subsidized. 37 child welfare institutions having 4,398 children and 314 people of personnel are maintained and subsidized in Odessa region ...

Since child institutions in the country side are in worse situation it was decided to transfer foods from Odessa to them.

Goods addressed to private persons and received at many stations in Balta, Tyraspol, Ananiev, Valegotsulowo, Elisavetgrad and others are delivered by addressees to local departments of Jewish social committee... for needs of child welfare institutions...

The committee is to come across increasing underground capital raised by Jewish and bourgeois elements making individual help ... this goes against the NKVD instructions as for inadmissibility of any other Jewish relief organizations beside Jewish social committee ... The organization mentioned had as its members bourgeois Zionist elements Dr. Challer, cadet Barsky and poet Chernikhovsky. 

... A parcel committee in Elisavetgrad led by rabbi Cook ... lists of addressees put up in synagogues ... Odessa representation of London federation for bringing relief to Ukrainian Jews ... distribution carried out by local committees ... Legal initiative group in Elisavetgrad consisting of former public figures, clericals and Zionists who were pretty influential before the revolution ... gambling on the famine they have taken their last attempt to get back this influence over wide mass of people ... offer to arrange a dining-room ... means gotten mainly from Moscow ... several billion Roubles ... 50 parcels a month plus 30 ones for medical aid ... 100 parcels once gotten, a part of that was used to support the dining-room organized with the rest distributed individually, mostly among petty bourgeois element basing upon individual applications. Most active members of the group were: 
1) doctor ... from petty bourgeois family, Zionist and public figure, a president of Jewish community during regimes of Kerensky, Petlura and Denikin, former deputy of State Duma from Zionist group (at Kerensky) ...
2) lawyer ...
3) physician ...
4) lawyer ...
5) Litsker -- former journalist, worked at "Odessa News", former co-owner of a printing-house, former deputy in Kerensky's Duma.
The group has been liquidated with transferring means to the Jewish social committee. 

As for Odessa Jewish social committee description:
1) ... -- head of presiding council, a member of Ukrainian Bundist party, devoted and active worker... 
7) Boim -- head of division of transportation, former member of Bundist party, Menshevik, passive worker. 

... Issues in America about the Jewish social committee as a whole ... the committee has broken off relations with the "Joint" organization hostile to the soviets to have to do with so-called "friendly associations" which are semi-proletarian organizations ...


German Race Citizens' Union -- main goal is ... agriculture and ... raising cultural standards of German population of the province. Two members of the Union, Heinrich Pfars and Gottlieb Hardt were commissioned to Kharkov, Moscow and further to Germany. Their correspondence was of exclusively business nature ... Seed-fund was brought from abroad to be directed to country side ... as for cultural and educational activity, no essential things were noted yet.

... The Bureau for affairs on repatriation of German, Austrian, Hungarian and Czecho-Slovak subjects -- has been existing since the moment of establishing soviet power in Odessa in February 1920 ... Led by Karl Hahn son of Johann ... we have set thorough observation over Hahn but nothing suspicious was found. His deputy and secretary is Anton Rosch, son of Anton who came to Odessa along with Hahn, Rosch often arranges parties at his home visited by compatriots ... herman Baum, son of Karl serves as a diplomatic messenger ... speculated in foreign currency ... Alesander Gelleri/Helleri, son of Adolf -- arrested in 1920 on suspicion of espionage and sentenced to forced labour to serve for 3 months, often visited by strangers ...

Other organizations -- German Bureau for affairs of prisoners of war, German colonists' relief society and German Red Cross.


1) Poland -- no official representative of Poland in Odessa ... head of consular department of Polish Embassy Dzenekhovsky came here from Kharkov as an expert in foreign trade affairs. Did not stay long and departed taking along documents on those having taken Polish citizenship.

2). Turkish repatriation mission -- consists of just two persons, ...

3) Albanian Consulate -- ... establishment is caused by albanian colony existing in Odessa.

4) Armenian representation ...


... Italian shipping society ... "Lloyd" trade department manages its all trade and commercial operations being a middle-point between arriving Italian merchants and a local purchaser, Vneshtorg (Foreign trade department). Headed by Petako, director general of all agencies in Russia ... he is reserved person, doesn't speak Russian ... His assistant is ... The head of Odessa department is ... Other officers are ...

... The work is carried out with observing the rules of security...

One have to say that one person has become an "insider" in Lloyd, he is a famous Odessa figure, former barrister...


The representative is ... In activity of the former one, Studenikin as well as his assistants many shady aspects were noted bordering on malfeasance in large scales ... initiated suspicious deal connected with getting from the ARA 2,000 poods of flour to sell ... coward by nature, pride, lives in his family being not in straitened circumstances ... 

Korenblit is the secretary ... Mikhailov is in charge of transportation... 

The work was carried out in inadmissible way ... they pursued too broadly and shamelessly their own objects of personal gain at the expense of the Republic and the ARA. Such an disorganizing state of the personnel would eliminate giving proof of the soviet representative's these or that actions because of no documents needed available, in case of possible conflict to occur between the Republic and the ARA...

The ARA resisted at attempt to bring the representative's people into the parcel section ... bribes, bouts, defalcation...

/Sealed and signed/

Pages 453-453back



New economic policy induced uniting movement among German colonists. All the elements that headed colonist organizations before i.e. leaders of the "Black Sea Region Central Union of German Colonists" and, from another hand, leaders of the "Union of Small Farms" of Black Sea colonists which thoroughly faded during war communism, will now again appear in the foreground to again strengthen their influence in the colonies. Former leaders of the "Central Union" organized in March of 1922 so-called "Union of Citizens of German Race" and the latter did the "Union of Odessa Province Colonists". Both unions have one and the same statute which is to point out that they supposedly seek to raise their culture and improve farming in German colonies. Both unions and their statutes have been approved by the Province Executive Committee Administrative Department without inquiry of the Province Executive Committee German section or that of the Province Committee, which sections might have given detailed information and biographies. 

The "Union of Citizens" is uniting mainly Lutheran (Reformed) colonies and reactionary intellectuals as well as reactionary kulaks and supporters of former "Central Union" and adherents of German Ukraine. 

The "Union of Colonists" is chiefly uniting Catholic colonies and exclusively their intellectuals i.e. teachers playing leading role in striving to democracy. 

Both unions have already held their organization meetings. They have their local committees as well as proxies in colonies to put all instructions of the unions into practice and thus, be an element connecting the unions with wide mass of German colonists. 

First action the unions did was the distribution of donations from abroad made for starving people.

Difficult state of the colonies was deliberately taken up and used by colonists who fled abroad during the civil war, to raise their authority among colonists by collecting small donations and so prepare the way back to the colonies for themselves, where to proceed with their work aimed to overthrow the soviets. That organization is named "Schwarzmeerhilfswerk" (help to Black Sea Germans) and located in Berlin at 47 Konigretzerstrasse. This "Schwarzmeerhilfswerk" being subdivided into sections has direct contacts with both unions. 

The Unions organization was mainly caused by reception and distribution of all donations from abroad (parcels) coming chiefly from Germany and America to the unions needed by them for raising their authority and respect among colonists but in other words, for speculating on starvation. Middle-persons in this "flawless" work of "Schwarzmeerhilfswerk" in Berlin are all those who in 1918 directed beating poor villagers in colonies and Russian villagers through German invaders, they are same ones who in 1918 and 1919 organized self-defense in German colonies against Red Army, to spread now sensitive slogans trying to get into direct contact with colonies, through the two unions mentioned but mainly it’s the "Union of Citizens of German Race". 

The unions send their representatives to Berlin, with representatives of "Schwarzmeerhilfswerk" coming sometimes to visit here. For the time being, three representatives of this organization are here to have brought along significant amount of money in marks and dollars in spite of prohibition as for importing foreign currency without leave of Vneshtorg. 

"Schwarzmeerhilfswerk" representatives Stuhlberg and Rumps visiting in Odessa now, without permission of local soviet authorities spoke at organization meetings of both unions, took the colonists' greetings to deliver in Berlin, described their current state there and made first-hand view of "Schwarzmeerhilfswerk" activity. 

For the five months of their existence, the unions have accomplished nothing in the colonies in the field of raising culture and improving farming. 

They are still middle-persons in giving aid to those starving i.e. they take parcel notifications received at the ARA and send them to the colonies. 

It's seen from the above what a danger comes from both unions as well as "Schwarzmeerhilfswerk", because instead of the communist party they are spreading their harmful influence over German colonies and linking with country people.

Next questions are undoubtedly to be put here: it's quite necessary to create colonist unions. It's of the soviet power interests to soonest develop German colonies and therefore, create a German cultural and economic union. That of Volga Germans having scored big successes can be an example for that. Moreover, an organization is needed which could, within current circumstances, bring a broad response to communists' influence. This is realizable just in case if German sections of the Province Committee and Province Executive Committee reconstruct their personnel to work. 

/Edited and supplemented by German section of the Province committee of Ukrainian Communist Party/

/Sealed and signed/

Pages 457-458back

from REVIEW No 4 of the GPU Odessa Province Department by February 2, 1923


Big changes are happening in the ARA staff. At the end of January a new head of the ARA Odessa unit Mr. HODGESON arrived. Former head, Mr. HOWARD is still here turning over his duties to the new one. Hodgeson ... an energetic, persistent and severe ... The ARA personnel is being shortened in a great deal ... Political reliability of those left is increased ... Harris reported that the parcel division is to be liquidated and beginning from February 28 there will be no money reception for parcels abroad.

... Head of the sea port department Mr. LANGE ... American subject, 34 years old, native of the town of Dennison, arrived in Russia on January 4, 1922 ... during the WW1 served in Petrograd at the US Consulate, in 1919 having a colonel rank served at a British warship and allegedly negotiated with insurrectionists in Tuapse region on the instructions of general Denikin. Politically indifferent, pretending to know no Russian language... 

On January 28, 1923 a European representative of American Baptist society Mr. Levi arrived on an American ship. His address of permanent place of residence in Paris is ... he brought 1,200 packages with clothes for Baptists of Odessa region ... tactful search done ... several boxes with Baptist books...


...It's activity is still limited to be of minor assistance to Jewish Social Committee and subsidizing several institutions. It is intensifying its intelligence activity though, in terms of collecting information about economic state of the region...

Although being not large numerically, Joint staff's political physiognomy can be already described clearly ... prevailing Jewish element... 

N A N S E N ' s    M I S S I O N

Headed by Mr. HAHN and formed by separate small organizations led by their own representatives. The mission is formed by next units -- VEKOPO (representative Dr. Adler), VEDIF (London association of Ukrainian Jews, representative Dr. Grinberg), "MSPD"...

Dr. Adler, a former student of Odessa University, leader of student Zionist organization "Gahover"...

J E W I S H    S O C I A L    C O M M I T T E E

... Intensified activity of the Emigration Bureau ... reports sent to Kharkov and Moscow regarding activity of all foreign organizations for giving relief to starving people (especially the ARA and Joint) ... ORT (Society for spreading workmanship and farming among Jews) bought several boxes with pencils in Berlin ...

T H E    R E P R E S E N T A T I V E

...personnel without change ... no measures taken to eliminate defects mentioned ... good contacts with us ...

O U T L Y I N G    D I S T R I C T S


... Liquidation of Nikolayev province has essentially affected the staff numerically ... By February 1, 1923 the personnel consisted of 45 officers and 13 working at storehouses. Represented by Raskin Meer, Russian Jew, native of Latvia, lived in America, his assistant -- Philipp Sturm, native of Galicia, his mother resides in Poland, German by nationality, lived in America. Most of employees are intellectuals, bourgeois, evident antagonists of the soviets ... New head officer Vladovsky and head of division of statistics Grinblat who also holding the office of Nikolayev uyezd statistical bureau can supply Americans with various information ... New representative Donald-Lask-Neu is to come...


... Headed by rabbi Shneerson, physician Konigsberg and state bank officer Levin ... still working unofficially ... 10-15 parcels are given daily out ... New Year party for the ARA management and employees, everybody had the right to invite one guest. Costumes and furniture of pre-revolutionary time, women with diamonds ... concert after the International and American anthem performed ... at 11:45pm free painter Brown performed a funeral march ... speeches essence ... supper and drinking transformed to bacchanalia ... ended at 8 in the morning.

B A L T A    U Y E Z D

... Framework of the organizations ... dining-rooms for feeding starving children ... personnel of petty bourgeois nature ... Zionists ... observation carried on.

T Y R A S P O L    U Y E Z D

... giving help to all boarding schools in the uyezd as well as individually to some categories of people in most need ... 2 dining-rooms for 400 people in Tyraspol and in the uyezd and borough of Grossulowo, Dubossary, Grigoriopol and Zakharievka for total 600 children. Feeding adults is also planned ... The Nansen's mission is represented by Bencion Shwarzman, son of Abraham, 35 years old, a Jew, born in Tyraspol, former barrister, active Zionist leader before 1918, of non-party for the time being, enjoys authority and respect among the population ... Isai Waingus, son of Mark, 42 years old ...

The ARA started to function in Tyraspol uyezd beginning from May of 1922 ... The uyezd is divided to 2 districts and managed by their two representatives ... there are two dining-rooms in Tyraspol for 566 children to feed ... 3,000 children total fed in Tyraspol uyezd. Beside Tyraspol, there also are dining-rooms in Nezavertailovka, Korotnoye, Glinoye, Choburchi, Slobodzea, Karagash, Suklea, Novoye, Grossulowo, Petroverovka, Dubossary, Grigoriopol, Malayeshty and Parkany. 

P E R V O M A I S K    U Y E Z D

... Jewish Social Committee is headed by Abraham Cukerman son of Naum, resides in Pervomaisk ... Joint -- distributive station in Pervomaisk managed by Dr. Kushnir ... 4,500 sets of linen distributed ... ORT representative is some Azin, nationalist, chauvinist, politically suspitious, has contacts with Zionists ... under observation.

In other uyezds there were neither changes nor shifts in the organizations personnel.

"Correct" /signature/

Page 57

/Top secret/

To: Informant comrade Shapovalov
/For personal responsibility of the head of secret division/

Clarify urgently -- number of the ARA's members, their names and that of hosts having them taken to lodge as well as the addresses, references on the members, address of the mission office, number and names of its officers as well as full references on them, names of the representatives in Zaporozhye uyezd, names of those visiting the ARA members with full references, etc.

The task is considered to be urgent and of top secret.

Senior authorized agent on intelligence information /signature/
"Correct" -- Secretary /signature/

Page 176

/Top secret/

The VUCK Special Division

Authorized agent ___ Ivanov-Zimin
Case No ___ 49
Brought in ___ December 19, 1921

Date -- December 18, 1921

Information ascertained by internal secret agents -- Arrived to Kharkov representatives of the ARA Leonitsky and Matthews ... temporally lodged at 12 Maximilian St. ...
Matthews has already made the acquaintance of Eugenia daughter of Alexey (last name is not known yet) residing at Apt. 5, 3 Sumskaya St.
The ARA representatives are looking for a private apartment in Kharkov for their office. According to Matthews, main task of the ARA in Ukraine is to help starving children.